Mark H. Ashcraft defines math anxiety as "a feeling of tension, apprehension, or fear that interferes with math performance" (2002, p. 1). The first math anxiety measurement scale was developed by Richardson and Suinn in 1972.
Reducing Math Anxiety
Radford University. (n.d.). Reducing Math Anxiety. Retrieved August 1, 2017, from http://www.radford.edu/content/LARC/home/learning-guides/math/math-anxiety.html