Skip to Main Content

HIST 1301 TR Blank: Native Americans in the Fort Worth Area: Tribal Nations

Wichita Nation

Wichita Indians.The Wichita band of Indians was one of several bands that composed the Wichita confederacy. The name Wichita is first found in the early seventeenth century in historical records of French traders, who used the word Ousitas to identify one band of Indians who lived near the Arkansas River in present Oklahoma. In the nineteenth century the name came to be used to refer to several confederated bands who recognized a common progenitor and had similar traditions and culture. The Wichita called themselves Kitikiti'sh, meaning "raccoon eyes," because the designs of tattoos around the men's eyes resembled the eyes of the raccoon. In central Kansas in 1541 the Coronado expedition visited Indians whom Coronado called Quiviras and who have been identified by archeological and historical studies as Wichitas. By 1719 these people had moved south to Oklahoma and were called Ousitas by the French trader Jean Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe. From the 1750s to 1810 one band of the Wichita Indians was on the Red River north of the site of present Nocona, Texas. The Wichitas, during this period, were prominent middlemen in the trade between the Comanches on the plains and Louisiana merchants and were at the zenith of their power and prestige. Warriors of the band accompanied the Comanches in the attack on the Spanish Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission in 1758, and the Red River villages withstood a retaliatory strike by the Spanish in 1759. In 1772 Athanase de Mézières, commandant of the Spanish post at Natchitoches, Louisiana, visited a band of Quedsitas on the upper Brazos River; in 1784 Texas Governor Domingo Cabello y Robles reported Guachita depredations in the San Antonio area; and periodically, beginning in 1787, Guichitas or Huichitas regularly visited San Antonio. The America agent at Natchitoches in 1805 identified one of the Red River villages as the Wicheta.

Websites:

Wichita and Affiliated Tribes: Link to site

Articles:

Baugh, Timothy G. "Wichita Inspirations: Virgil R. Swift." Plains Anthropologist, vol. 53, no. 208, 2008, pp. 375-376. ProQuest, link to article

Abstract: There he discovered that African Americans treated American Indian soldiers with more respect than southern whites did as he and a fellow Arapaho soldier were denied service at one mainstream establishment after another even as they wore the uniform of the United States Army. Today, this exhibit remains open to the public at the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes Cultural Center in Anadarko, Oklahoma. Because of his strong understanding and appreciation of his people's traditional ways, Virgil also began serving as the Director of Historic Preservation in 1982. [...]he concluded that the only true way to unravel the puzzle of Wichita biology was through DNA studies.

Perkins, Stephen M., and Timothy G. Baugh. "Protohistory and the Wichita." Plains Anthropologist, vol. 53, no. 208, 2008, pp. 381-394. ProQuest, link to article

Abstract: [...]as George Odell notes in his contribution to this volume, the less decorative, more utilitarian artifacts (e.g., undecorated pottery, Fresno points, or other stone tools, such as scrapers) produced by Wichita subdivisions are virtually indistinguishable from those of the neighboring Osage or Pawnee. La Harpe, in turn, ordered a lieutenant to "carve the arms of the king and the company on a post, which was planted in the center of the village" (Odell 2002:8). [...]both sides enacted rituals to signify their benevolence and to solidify social and economic relations. [...]protohistoric production remains structured through indigenous labor relations, even if the commodities produced enter European mercantile exchange networks (Alexander 1998; Schortman and Urban 1998; Wolf 1982:83-88). [...]two investigations report findings concerning eighteenth-century European trade goods.

Cherokee

"The Cherokee Nation is a sovereign tribal government. Upon settling in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) after the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokee people established a new government in what is now the city of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. A constitution was adopted on September 6, 1839, 68 years prior to Oklahoma’s statehood.

Today, the Cherokee Nation is the largest tribe in the United States with more than 390,000 tribal citizens worldwide. More than 141,000 Cherokee Nation citizens reside within the tribe’s reservation boundaries in northeastern Oklahoma. Services provided include health and human services, education, employment, housing, economic and infrastructure development, environmental protection and more. With approximately 11,000 employees, Cherokee Nation and its subsidiaries are one of the largest employers in northeastern Oklahoma. The tribe had a more than $2.16 billion economic impact on the Oklahoma economy in fiscal year 2018." - https://www.cherokee.org/

Comanche

"We are the Comanche Nation and in our native language “Nʉmʉnʉʉ” (NUH-MUH-NUH) which means, “The People”. We are known as “Lords of the Plains” and were once a part of the Shoshone Tribe. In the late 1600’s and early 1700’s we moved off from our Shoshone kinsmen onto the northern Plains and then southerly in search a new homeland. We Migrated across the Plains, through Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma. " - https://comanchenation.com/our-nation/about-us

Caddo

"The ancestors of the Caddo Indians were agriculturalists whose distinctive way of life and material culture emerged by A.D. 900, as revealed in archaeological sites in Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma. When members of Hernando de Soto’s expedition entered the region in 1542, thriving Caddo communities were distributed along the Brazos, Trinity, Neches, Sabine, Red, and Ouachita rivers. These communities played important economic and diplomatic roles during the seventeenth and eighteenth century colonial era. The Caddo people suffered hardships when the United States government removed them to reservations in Texas and later Oklahoma during the nineteenth century." -  https://mycaddonation.com/history-1

Language Resources

Fiction by Indigenous Authors