As you begin learning to write nursing papers, you will find the hardest part is finding "good" articles. Nursing papers are different than anything you have written before. You are no longer repeating information you found or writing a paper that "says what you want to say." Now you will be telling the reader about an empirical study/original research [evidence] and how the results of that study impact nursing [practice].
You are no longer looking for articles that provide an overview of a topic. Now you need to find articles where someone conducted a study in an attempt to solve a problem. Be sure the authors of the article actually did something themselves. You cannot use articles where the author(s) tells you what other people did.
When searching for your articles, do not use too many words or try to find an article that uses the exact words of your topic. Sometimes, you have to think differently. What is the problem related to your topic? For example, suicide is not a problem nurses can fix. Depression, which may lead to suicide, is a problem nurses can impact. Your search term would be depression.
If you are having a hard time finding articles that you think are appropriate for your paper, think about the problem and search for articles about that instead.
While most assignments do not require the article to be published in America, you still need to make sure that the lessons learned in the study are applicable to American health care. For example, an article that mentions problems caused by the abject poverty of a third world country, might not be something that American health workers--even those working in poor neighborhoods--would face.
Refer to the assignment sheets and use the following databases for this assignment.
Search for your cultural group and the condition. Example:
African American AND hypertension
This website has wonderful information about health conditions as they relate to culture as well as how some cultural aspects relate to health care. Ethnomed: https://ethnomed.org/
Think Cultural Health
Office of Minority Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Think Cultural Health is an OMH initiative that provides health and health care professionals with information, continuing education opportunities, and resources to learn about and implement CLAS and the National CLAS Standards. Explore other Think Cultural Health resources related to the National CLAS Standards: https://thinkculturalhealth.hhs.gov/resources/library
Minority Health Social Vulnerability Index Fact Sheet: https://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/Assets/PDF/MH%20SVI%20Fact%20Sheet_7.15.2021.pdf
Health Policy Institute: https://hpi.georgetown.edu/cultural/#
The ethics paper is a little different than other nursing papers. While you will still be demonstrating evidence-based practice, you will also be discussing the nursing ethics which apply to the topic in your research.
Your introduction (which should be written AFTER you have written your paper so that you can best know what your paper will be about) should not mention your study AT ALL. You need to state the problem that the researchers attempted to solve with their study.
The body will summarize the study you found. After summarizing, you will explain what your textbook authors say about the same topic.
Next, you will select ONE ethical principle (justice, autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence) which applies to the topic and explain how it applies.
Several organizations dictate ethics for nurses:
1. National: AWHONN
(Citation: Association of Women's Health, Obstetric & Neonatal Nurses. (2019). Standards for professional nursing practice in the care of women and newborns. (8th ed.) [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://libguides.tccd.edu/ld.php?content_id=47153506
2. State: TBON
(Citation: Texas Board of Nursing. (2007). Texas administrative code: Standards of nursing practice. Retrieved from http://www.bon.texas.gov/rr_current/217-11.asp
3. Hospital: Policies & Procedures
You will be looking at the standards listed by each of these groups and discussing how particular ones apply to the issue researched. Try to stay consistent with the theme. For example, if you selected the ethical principle of beneficence by education, the AWHONN standard would be V: Health Teaching & Promotion, and the TBON standard would be (F): Promote and participate in education and counseling to a client(s) and, where applicable, family/significant other(s) based on health needs. Ask your nursing supervisor at your hospital if there is a policy regarding the issue of your research. Use that policy to discuss how it applies.
Your conclusion will--as always--be an explanation of nursing implications based on your research. What should nurses DO to solve the problem presented in the introduction?
Review my outline below to get a clearer picture of the flow of your paper.
There is currently no known research assignment for peds.
In this paper, you are comparing the degree of severity of a health condition in American to the degree of severity in another country or around the world, presenting information about factors associated with the condition, and then explaining how nurses can help (based on the information presented in the paper). Sometimes helping involves educating the patient; sometimes helping requires being a patent advocate; sometimes helping just means educating yourself. Once you understand the problem, you can determine how to best help.
For this paper, you will need to find (I believe): 2 nursing texts, 3 nursing journal articles, and perhaps a professional website or two.
Text sources provide background information about a clinical condition or health issue. These kinds of sources help you better understand a condition and how you, the nurse, can help. These sources represent what is historically known about an issue. The nursing texts can include your textbook, but do not have to. For a second nursing text, try the Nursing Reference Center database. Click on the tab Finding Articles, drop down to Nursing Texts, then select Nursing Reference Center. When you find an article, be sure to email it to yourself with the APA 7 citation.
Journal articles are studies related to the health issue. These sources provide new information about an issue. What is the latest treatment, technique, or understanding of an issue or condition? In order to stay up to date on how to provide the best care for a patient, nurses need to regularly read journal studies. The best place to locate nursing journal articles is in the CINAHL database. Click on the tab Finding Articles, drop down to Nursing Journal Articles, then select CINAHL. When you find an article, be sure to email it to yourself with the APA 7 citation.
Professional websites include those that provide statistics that allow you to compare the rates of a disease or condition. For international health stats, I recommend the World Health Organization (who.int). For health stats from the US, try the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (cdc.gov). To see how to site these source, click on the tab APA 7 and drop down to APA 7 Citations.
It may take years for the new information from a study to become part of the historical literature, so it is important to be familiar with both types of sources.
Ultimately, all nursing research is about determining the nurse's role in the helping the patient.
Here is a possible structure of the paper:
What is the health issue? How does this health issue impact people or countries or economies, etc.? How bad is it around the world vs. the US?
Share what was found in the text sources. What is the background of the issue?
Share what you learned from the journal studies. What was the objective of the study? How was the study conducted? What was learned from the study?
Nursing interventions based on information presented. What can one nurse do independently to help a patient? All interventions must be a result of the information presented from research. Be specific. (A general statement that nurses should be 'educated' is meaningless. It would be better to say, "Nurses should educate themselves on the symptoms of this rare condition in order to avoid any possibility of misdiagnosis." Now you have explained the 'what' and the 'why' of the education.)
Once you feel you have done everything you can, and you're ready for me to look at it-or if you feel you need help during the process--feel free to email me questions or schedule an appointment here.