Census Bureau Data – Affords access to the resulting data of decennial census events and the American Community Survey (ACS). Also, it reports the results of pulse surveys, which focus on household and business trends due to COVID-19.
Esri Open Data Hub - Provides the sheer amount of open data sets in various formats such as spreadsheets, KML, shapefile, GeoJSON, OGC WMS, GeoService, and APIs.
Natural Earth Data - Accesses public-domain global GIS data, beneficial for constructing visually appealing maps. The accessible datasets are vector and raster at 1:10m, 1:50m, and 1:110 million scales.
USGS Earth Explorer - Explores satellite imagery such as Landsat, aerial photographs, and cartographic products through a state-of-the-art and easy-to-use interface.
Open Street Map - Distributes free open data developed by its mapping project. Be cautious of using the data since the levels of accuracy vary among regions and countries.
NASA’s Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) - Offers data sets, maps, and map services related to population distribution and change, poverty and economic indicators, and applications of satellite remote sensing. The most well-known data available on this site is global-level population grid data.
Open Topography - Facilitates access to high-resolution topographic data, mainly LiDAR data. If LiDAR is unavailable, users can still download coarse global DEMs.
UNEP Environmental Data Explorer - Disseminates spatial and non-spatial data used by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and its partners in the Global Environment Outlook assessment. The website covers various themes: water, population, forests, emissions, climate, disasters, health, and GDP.
NASA Earth Observations (NEO) - Provides imagery and raster data helpful in studying climate and environmental changes. The datasets are organized into the following themes: atmosphere, energy, land, life, and ocean.
Copernicus Open Access Hub - Delivers satellite imagery free. The available products are data observed by Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3, and Sentinel-5P.
IPUMS - Offers data of population, housing, agriculture, and health surveys across time and regions. The website also provides data helpful for analyzing individuals in the community contexts.